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Initial Selection on Apoidea Superfamily

  • Alexander, B.A. & Michener, C.D. (1995). Phylogenetic studies of the families of shorttongued bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 55: 377–424.
  • Brown, A.O. & McNeil, J.N. (2009). Pollination ecology of the high latitude, dioecious cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus; Rosaceae). Am. J. Bot,. 96(6), 1096-1107.
  • Cardinal, S. & Packer, L. (2007). Phylogenetic analysis of the corbiculate Apinae based on morphology of the sting apparatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Cladistics, 23, 99–118.
  • Chavarria, G. & Carpenter, J. (1994). “Total evidence” and the evolution of highly social bees. Cladistics, 10, 229–258.
  • Engel, M.S. & Schultz, T.R. (1997). Phylogeny and behavior of honey bees. Annals of Entomological Society of America, 90, 43–53.
  • Engel, M.S. (2005). Family-group names for bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). American Museum Novitates, 3476, 1–33.
  • Michener, C.D. (2007). The bees of the world. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
  • Williams, P.H. (1998). An annotated checklist of bumble bees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.), 67, 79–152.

Updated Selection on Apidea Family by Dr. Sophie Cardinal

Apidae, the most speciose family of bees with over 6000 species, includes the most important managed pollinators (e.g., Apis mellifera), and is also the most behaviourally diverse family of bees. Recently published molecular phylogenies indicate that the present higher level classification of Apidae does not recognize natural groups. As part of my research program, I have been continuing to work on resolving the phylogenetic relationships of apid bees using molecular data, but now it is important that we revise the classification to reflect these new relationships. Before, we can revise the classification we need to find morphological characters to support these new molecular based groupings. Mapping all of the behavioural and morphological characters that can be mined from the literature onto our molecular based phylogeny would help us find characters that support this new higher-level classification.

Mining the associated characteristics of taxa found in descriptive literature would also be a great tool for species level revisions of large groups in which species concepts are unclear. The apid genus Nomada is a speciose group of cleptoparasitic bees whose taxonomy in North America is in desperate need of a revision. Past authors have both over split and lumped species creating a taxonomic nightmare. We are presently working on revising Nomada of North America. Our molecular data indicate that in some cases, our “molecular species” contain a variety of different morphologically identified species and vice versa. Many of the original species descriptions were very short and based on few specimens and only one sex. No key currently exists to accurately identify all species of North American Nomada. The numerous species groups and subgenera assigned by various authors are also poorly defined. Furthermore, past revisionary work on the group has focussed on one geographic area at a time. Consequently, previously described species from one geographic area have been re-described as new species in other geographic areas. The data mined from the literature would help pinpoint some of these situations. Once we clarify the taxonomy of Nomada, we hope to be able to look at co-evolution between this cleptoparasitic group of bees and it’s host bees from the genus Andrena.

Selected Publications on Nomada

Selected Publications on Apidea

Initial Selection on the Rosaceae Family

  • Steve Cafferty, Charles E. Jarvis (2002). Typification of Linnaean Plant Names in Rosaceae. Taxon, Vol. 51, No. 3 (Aug., 2002), pp. 539-545 URL
  • Gentes Herbarum: (rightholder The Bailey Hortorium). To be re-scanned (as of 053113)

Process Schedule

  • Flora of China
  • Bees of the World
  • Publications on Nomada and Apidea
  • Castanea Rubus 98 (Iowa)
  • Jepson Manual of Higher Plant
  • Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States
  • Flora of North America

Processed Documents

  • Flora of China
  • Bees of the World
  • Jepson Manual of Higher Plant
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